What are intellectual property rights?

What are intellectual property rights?

What are intellectual property rights? – Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.

Intellectual property rights are customarily divided into two main areas:(i) Copyright and rights related to copyright.

The rights of authors of literary and artistic works (such as books and other writings, musical compositions, paintings, sculpture, computer programs and films) are protected by copyright, for a minimum period of 50 years after the death of the author.

Also protected through copyright and related (sometimes referred to as “neighbouring”) rights are the rights of performers (e.g. actors, singers and musicians), producers of phonograms (sound recordings) and broadcasting organizations. The main social purpose of protection of copyright and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work.

(ii) Industrial property

What are intellectual property rights?

Industrial property can usefully be divided into two main areas:

  • One area can be characterized as the protection of distinctive signs, in particular trademarks (which distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings) and geographical indications (which identify a good as originating in a place where a given characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin).

    The protection of such distinctive signs aims to stimulate and ensure fair competition and to protect consumers, by enabling them to make informed choices between various goods and services. The protection may last indefinitely, provided the sign in question continues to be distinctive.

  • Other types of industrial property are protected primarily to stimulate innovation, design and the creation of technology. In this category fall inventions (protected by patents), industrial designs and trade secrets.

    The social purpose is to provide protection for the results of investment in the development of new technology, thus giving the incentive and means to finance research and development activities.

    A functioning intellectual property regime should also facilitate the transfer of technology in the form of foreign direct investment, joint ventures and licensing.

    The protection is usually given for a finite term (typically 20 years in the case of patents).

While the basic social objectives of intellectual property protection are as outlined above, it should also be noted that the exclusive rights given are generally subject to a number of limitations and exceptions, aimed at fine-tuning the balance that has to be found between the legitimate interests of right holders and of users.

Read More :  Mypass-a-grille.com

Protect Your Intellectual Property

Protect Your Intellectual Property

Protect Your Intellectual Property – Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions; literary and artistic works; and symbols, images, names and logos used in commerce. Businesses are often unaware that their business assets include IP rights.

Your intellectual property is a valuable intangible asset that should be protected to enhance your competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Stopfakes.gov is a one-stop shop for U.S. government tools and resources on intellectual property rights (IPR). You will find business guides, country toolkits, upcoming training events, and more on the site.

How to Protect your IP

Copyrights, which cover works of authorship, such as books, logos and software, is part of intellectual property protection, as are patents, which protect inventions. Other types of IP include trademarks, designs and trade secrets.

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

Protect Your Intellectual Property

The first thing you need to do to safeguard your intellectual property is to file for protection in the United States. Your state’s bar association can recommend experienced lawyers who can help you with that.

Then you must be the first inventor to file for protection in the countries in which you currently do business, or are certain to do business in the future. You should also consider filing for protection in countries that are well-known for counterfeit markets.

If you do business in nations that have free trade agreements with the U.S., IP protections are built into those agreements, but you’ll still need to file in each country to get those protections.

Conversely, if you do business in any country in the European Union, you only need to file for protection with the EU – not every individual nation.

If you have a registered IP right in the United States, these protections are territorial and do not extend to foreign countries. Additionally, most countries are a “first to file” country for trademark registration and “first inventor to file” for patent registration and therefore grant registration to the first filer regardless of first use in the market.

What are intellectual property rights?

What are intellectual property rights?

What are intellectual property rights? – Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.

Intellectual property rights are customarily divided into two main areas:(i) Copyright and rights related to copyright.

The rights of authors of literary and artistic works (such as books and other writings, musical compositions, paintings, sculpture, computer programs and films) are protected by copyright, for a minimum period of 50 years after the death of the author.

Also protected through copyright and related (sometimes referred to as “neighbouring”) rights are the rights of performers (e.g. actors, singers and musicians), producers of phonograms (sound recordings) and broadcasting organizations. The main social purpose of protection of copyright and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work.

(ii) Industrial property.

Industrial property can usefully be divided into two main areas:

  • One area can be characterized as the protection of distinctive signs, in particular trademarks (which distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings) and geographical indications (which identify a good as originating in a place where a given characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin).

    The protection of such distinctive signs aims to stimulate and ensure fair competition and to protect consumers, by enabling them to make informed choices between various goods and services. The protection may last indefinitely, provided the sign in question continues to be distinctive.

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

What are intellectual property rights?

  • Other types of industrial property are protected primarily to stimulate innovation, design and the creation of technology. In this category fall inventions (protected by patents), industrial designs and trade secrets.

    The social purpose is to provide protection for the results of investment in the development of new technology, thus giving the incentive and means to finance research and development activities.

    A functioning intellectual property regime should also facilitate the transfer of technology in the form of foreign direct investment, joint ventures and licensing.

    The protection is usually given for a finite term (typically 20 years in the case of patents).

While the basic social objectives of intellectual property protection are as outlined above, it should also be noted that the exclusive rights given are generally subject to a number of limitations and exceptions, aimed at fine-tuning the balance that has to be found between the legitimate interests of right holders and of users.

Protect Your Intellectual Property

Protect Your Intellectual Property

Protect Your Intellectual Property – Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions; literary and artistic works; and symbols, images, names and logos used in commerce. Businesses are often unaware that their business assets include IP rights.

Your intellectual property is a valuable intangible asset that should be protected to enhance your competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Stopfakes.gov is a one-stop shop for U.S. government tools and resources on intellectual property rights (IPR). You will find business guides, country toolkits, upcoming training events, and more on the site.

How to Protect your IP

Copyrights, which cover works of authorship, such as books, logos and software, is part of intellectual property protection, as are patents, which protect inventions. Other types of IP include trademarks, designs and trade secrets.

The first thing you need to do to safeguard your intellectual property is to file for protection in the United States. Your state’s bar association can recommend experienced lawyers who can help you with that.

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

Protect Your Intellectual Property

Then you must be the first inventor to file for protection in the countries in which you currently do business, or are certain to do business in the future. You should also consider filing for protection in countries that are well-known for counterfeit markets.

If you do business in nations that have free trade agreements with the U.S., IP protections are built into those agreements, but you’ll still need to file in each country to get those protections.

Conversely, if you do business in any country in the European Union, you only need to file for protection with the EU – not every individual nation.

If you have a registered IP right in the United States, these protections are territorial and do not extend to foreign countries. Additionally, most countries are a “first to file” country for trademark registration and “first inventor to file” for patent registration and therefore grant registration to the first filer regardless of first use in the market.

8 Innovative Approaches to Converting Offices

8 Innovative Approaches to Converting Offices

8 Innovative Approaches to Converting Offices – As office space utilization declined throughout the pandemic, the prospect of converting office buildings to accommodate other uses has been widely discussed. But this type of opportunistic investment is complex, risky and time consuming, and the current CRE credit crunch, along with municipal restrictions, mean that few construction-starts are taking place.

Despite these challenging conditions, office conversions (also known as adaptive reuse) are indeed occurring, albeit slowly, and every day there are more examples of completed projects.

To provide inspiration and information for investors who are exploring the possibility of, or are actively involved in, an office conversion project, LoopNet compiled eight articles that consider office adaptations from a variety of perspectives. Some profile completed projects, while others discuss regulatory changes and strategies that investors, municipalities and others are employing to make these conversions financially feasible.

The articles cover conversion of two former office buildings in Chicago, vertical farming in Calgary, innovative zoning in Arlington, Virginia and a premium conversion in the United Kingdom. The benefits of a den over a bedroom are explored, as is key criteria that makes an office building a good candidate for a residential conversion.

1. Underutilized Office Properties Could Represent Residential Conversion Opportunities

In this article, two prominent architects recount the history of office to residential conversions in New York City and outline the attributes that make an office property a compelling candidate for conversion to multifamily use. These aspects include smaller floor plates, courtyards and setbacks that enable the addition of terraces and balconies, as well as large windows and ample ceiling heights for natural light. Buildings with unique facades or eccentricities are also great candidates because they can result in distinctive spaces that add to the appeal of the building.

 

 

2. Inside the $500M+ Renovation That Transformed an Iconic Skyscraper into a Mixed-Use Destination

The user experience inside the former Sears Tower, renamed Willis Tower in 2009, did not meet the needs of its 15,000 office workers or 1.6 million annual visitors to the Skydeck. It also failed to attract the 170,000 Chicagoans who work within a five-minute walk of the skyscraper. With a focus on ways to improve the experience of these three major user groups, the redesign centered on retail, food and beverage offerings. These offerings were missing from Willis Tower itself, but also from that part of the Loop neighborhood.

3. Empty Offices Could Become Breweries, Labs and Distro Hubs in Arlington Zoning Change

In Arlington, Virginia, the municipality has taken an aggressive approach to alleviate its office vacancy problem. New use categories are being proposed, and some have been approved, to allow for a rich variety of activities including micro-fulfillment centers, higher education, animal boarding, artisan beverage making, artisan workshops, urban agriculture, digital gaming, indoor recreation, audio-visual production, wet labs, medical and dental practices, food delivery services and ghost kitchens. Zoning ordinances are being modified to include these uses “by right” so building and business owners can avoid lengthy rezoning processes.

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

8 Innovative Approaches to Converting Offices

4. How One Company Became a Leader in the Life Science Conversion Process

To help meet exceptional demand for life sciences facilities, one of the largest lab space owners in Quebec developed expertise in the conversion of industrial and office buildings into life sciences spaces. In some cases, the base building represents just 20% to 30% of the total project cost. This means that key to the company’s success is its ability to manage project complexities, delivery times, equipment availability, intricate ventilation systems, etc.

 

5. Is Vertical Farming a Green Solution to Office Vacancy?

A Canadian-based company has developed equipment and technology that allows vacant office space to be used to profitably grow up to 150 different crops of fresh produce for local markets. Characterized as “elevated urban farming,” a showcase facility in Calgary occupies 65,000 square feet of former office space. The firm is now licensing its technology internationally and is set to launch an updated version of its AI-powered vertical growing system, which uses only about 750 watts of power per 4-by-8-foot module, roughly the same energy burden as a personal computer.

 

6. Overcoming the Challenges (and Stigma) in an Office to Residential Conversion Scheme

One example of a high-quality office to residential conversion is Prospect Quarter, a UK project characterized by a blend of Art Deco and Midcentury Modern design. The finished product features 24 flats that include studio, one- and two-bedroom units, parking spaces and an outdoor garden. Such projects can be simpler to undertake in the UK than in other parts of the world, because of permitted development rights that enable office building owners to convert office structures to residences without undergoing a full planning review and approval process.

 

7. How One of Chicago’s Most Iconic Office Towers Became Luxury Condos

Built in 1925 and formerly the home of the Chicago Tribune newspaper, this 35-story tower took roughly 10 years to convert into luxury condominiums. While the limestone tower was designated a historic structure, neighboring buildings on the site lacked historic protective status and could have been demolished. But the development team opted to mostly preserve the entire site, which sits in a prized location on Michigan Avenue near the Chicago River and features 56 different floor plans for its 162 units.

8. Office to Residential Conversions: A Den May Help the Numbers Work

Units with two bedrooms and two full baths — totaling approximately 1,200 square feet — are the bread and butter of the multifamily housing industry, whether projects are intended to be sold or rented. But while working on an adaptive reuse project that involved converting a downtown D.C. office building into condominiums, this developer swapped one of those bedrooms for a den. Never having tried this before, the owners were relieved when this design sold briskly, mostly to single women.

The Hottest NYC Property Sectors To Invest in This Summer

The Hottest NYC Property Sectors To Invest in This Summer

The Hottest NYC Property Sectors To Invest in This Summer – New York City is often at the vanguard of trends that ripple out to the rest of the country; it’s also typically one of the most active property investment markets in the world. And while first quarter investment sales volume in New York City dropped by 53% from the fourth quarter of 2022, according to data provided by brokerage firm Avison Young, $2.2 billion in sales were still completed in the first three months of this year.

Moreover, even a novice investor understands that down markets often represent opportunity. That’s why LoopNet spoke with Cushman & Wakefield managing director Jonathan Squires about which sectors represent the best opportunities in New York City commercial real estate right now.

Of course, according to Squires, whether or not this moment in time actually is an opportunity depends largely on the perspective of the investor.

“If you’re looking long-term and you’re planning on holding it forever, or at least as part of your family legacy, I think right now is a great time to be buying. If you’re [looking to hold a property for] a year or two, or maybe even five years … I think that’s much riskier,” Squires said.

For those investors that are on the hunt right now, Squires highlighted subsidized housing, outdoor parking/storage facilities and neighborhood retail as three of the most currently compelling opportunities in New York City.

Subsidized Housing

“The rise in interest rates has driven the price down way below replacement costs, which means that you can buy multifamily properties for less than it would cost to build them, even if you got the land for free.””

 Jonathan Squires, managing director, C&W Capital Markets

Squires was bullish on multifamily in general. “You have a housing crisis in New York City and in the whole country,” he said. “The rise in interest rates has driven the price [of multifamily properties] down in New York City, and in much of the country, way below replacement costs, which means that you can buy multifamily properties for less than it would cost to build them, even if you got the land for free.”

The expiration of the 421-a tax exemption is putting additional pressure on the New York City housing supply. This regulation exempted developers of new multifamily properties totaling 300 units or more in New York State from paying any local taxes for up to three years during the construction period and up to 25 years once the building was completed, provided they set aside a portion of the development for affordable units. The expiration of this exemption last year has significantly constrained the multifamily development pipeline in New York City, leading to rising rents in non-stabilized apartments and sending many New Yorkers scrambling to secure a rent-stabilized unit.

In rent-stabilized New York properties in particular, Squires said that there is a “double whammy,” of rising interest rates and regulations introduced via the New York Housing Stability & Tenant Protection Act of 2019. The result is that “certain multifamily properties can be [purchased] in New York City now for less than $100 per square foot, which is something I thought I’d never see,” Squires said.

The 2019 law restricted the extent to which owners of rent-stabilized units could increase the rent once an apartment became vacant. Prior to the Housing Stability & Tenant Protection Act, owners could increase the rent on a stabilized unit by up to 20% upon vacancy, but they are now limited to an increase that typically represents little to no additional rental revenue. Further, rental increases based on major capital improvements at subsidized properties are now limited to just 2%, a decrease from the previous allowable limit of 6%-15%, depending on the specific county.

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

The Hottest NYC Property Sectors To Invest in This Summer

Despite these restrictions, or perhaps because of them, rent-stabilized properties now represent a compelling investment opportunity, according to Squires. As an example of the kinds of discounts he’s observed in the market, Squires relayed some details about a transaction he recently completed that involved a fully rent-stabilized property along the Grand Concourse in the Bronx.

“The property was purchased five years ago for $100 million,” Squires said. “The owners put $20 million into the property. We sold the property five years later [in the first quarter of 2023] for $60 million.”

Squires estimated that, on average, he’s seeing discounts of 25%-30% on rent-stabilized multifamily properties compared to just a year ago, while cap rates have expanded during the same time period from 4% to as much as 7.5%.

Outdoor Parking/Storage Facilities

Infill industrial properties — which are still excellent investments generally, according to Squires — are also driving demand for outdoor parking/storage facilities.

Over the past decade, many outdoor storage/parking facilities — which often house construction vehicles and materials, buses or other municipal vehicle fleets — were eliminated to make way for last-mile distribution centers or other industrial uses.

Because of this trend, not many of these industrial parking/storage facilities remain in New York City, and Squires said that it’s one of the few, if not the only, asset types where he’s seen sales prices increase over the past 12 months. The constraints have become so severe that Squires said some investors have been musing about “knocking down buildings” because “you can get more [rent] for outdoor storage than you can for some of these older industrial properties,” Squires said.

Squires indicated that investors interested in outdoor parking/storage facilities need to be crafty and quick in order to secure a property. “There’s really no supply, and anything that does come up gets snapped up pretty quickly.”

Neighborhood Retail

“I’m seeing prices that are so low, it’s hard to imagine that they can get much lower.”

 Jonathan Squires, managing director, C&W

The final property type that Squires referenced was something he termed “neighborhood retail.”

The term refers to retailers providing “certain services and goods that you are not able to order from Amazon and have delivered two days later.” In a New York City context, this means anything from a local clothing boutique to a casual bistro to the neighborhood dry cleaner.

The primary types of retailers that Squires said investors should focus on are “services, restaurants and experiential retailers.”

While Squires said that retail brokers have told him that rental rates are rising for well-located properties, he estimated that cap rates for prime retail in New York City have grown to 6.5%-7% compared to 4.5%-5% a year ago. Of course, he acknowledged that those cap rates can compress notably if the property has a high-credit tenant with a long-term lease in place.

In such instances, the higher sales price is based “much more on [the tenant’s] credit than the actual real estate.”

While Squires admitted that prices could still drop further over the course of the year, he said that interested investors should be wary of waiting too long before capturing opportunities.

“I see tremendous value now,” Squires said. “I’ve seen a number of these cycles where investors decided to stay on the sidelines, and they never knew when the bottom was. And if you’re six or 12 months late on that, you can miss a lot of the upside. I mean, I’m seeing prices that are so low, it’s hard to imagine that they can get much lower.”

Distributive Property: Definition, Formula, Examples

Distributive Property: Definition, Formula, Examples

Distributive Property: Definition, Formula, Examples – The distributive property is a well-known property related to numbers and algebra in mathematics. As the name suggests, this property focuses on distributing or dividing a quantity through proper conditions. The distributive property or distributive law is only operated in the multiplication of numbers and algebra. This is why it is also called the distributive law of multiplication.

Note: Distributive property can never be applied in the addition or subtraction of numbers. Even if you apply, the result will be void or produce errors in the solution.

Before diving deep into multiplication’s distributive property, let us have a quick look at other important properties in mathematics. They are listed below:

  • Commutative Property: This property states that the numbers or terms can commute or move their places in the expression without altering the result. This is true for addition and multiplication. For instance, (1 + 4) = (4 + 1) and (2 * 4) = (4 * 2). Subtraction doesn’t follow this property, for example, (1 – 4) = -3 is not equal to  (4 – 1) = 3.
  • Associative Property: This property states that the number of terms in an expression can associate themselves or groups with each other without altering the result. This is true for addition and multiplication. For instance (1 + 4) + 3 = 1 + (4 + 3).

Let us now discuss what distributive property means and examples.

Distributive Property Definition

Let us first understand a simple concept. If you have to distribute something, let’s say chocolate, with your friends, you divide the chocolate bar into pieces to ease the distribution, right! Mathematics follows the same concepts. When we have to simplify a hard problem, the distributive property helps to break down the expression into a sum or a difference of 2 numbers.

Mathematically the distributive property states that any expression provided in the form K × (L + M) can be easily resolved as K × (L + M) = KL + KM. This is known as the distributive law of multiplication’s application in addition. Likewise, the distributive law also stands true for expression containing subtraction. This is expressed as K × (L – M) = KL – KM.

As you all can witness, K is being distributed to both the terms in addition or subtraction. Here K is known as an operand, and the terms inside the expression are known as addends.

Let us learn some important terms we have learned so far:

  • Operand: The term being distributed is known as the operand.
  • Addends: The terms inside the bracket which are either added or subtracted are known as addends.
  • Distributive property of addition: K × (L + M) = KL + KM
  • Distributive property of subtraction: K × (L – M) = KL – KM

We can visualize now it states that when the operand is multiplied by the sum or difference to the addends, it is equal to the sum or difference of the individual product of operand and addend terms.

Distributive Property Formula

The formula for a given value’s distributive property can be stated as

c * ( a + b ) = ca + cb

This concludes all the theoretical aspects of the distributive property of multiplication. Next, let us look at the distributive law of multiplication over addition and subtraction in-depth with proper instances.

Distributive Property of Addition

When multiplying a number (operand) by the summation of two integers (addend), we use the distributive property of addition. Multiplying three by the sum of 10 + 8 is a good example. 3 x (10 + 8) is the mathematical expression for this.

Example: The distributive principle of addition may solve the formula 3 x (10 + 8).

Solution: Using this, we multiply each addend by three using the distributive property before solving the formula 3 x (10 + 8). After that, we may add the products by dividing the number 3 between the two addends. This signifies that the addition will take place before the multiplication of 3 (18) and 3 x (10) + 3 x (8) = 30 + 24 = 54 is the result of the distribution property of addition.

Distributive Property of Subtraction

Similarly, when multiplying a number (operand) by the difference between two integers (addend), we use the distributive property of subtraction. Multiplying three by the difference of 10 – 8 is a good example of subtraction’s distributive property. The mathematical expression for this equation is 3 x (10 – 8).

Example: The distributive principle of subtraction may be used to solve the formula 3 x (10 – 8).

Solution: Using this, we multiply each addend by three before solving the formula 3 x (10 – 8). After that, we may subtract the products by dividing the number 3 between the two addends. This signifies that the subtraction will take place before the multiplication of 3 x (18) and 3 x (10) – 3 x (8) = 30 – 24 = 6 is the result of the distributive property of subtraction.

We have talked so much about the distributive property, but how does it stand true in mathematics? Is there a way to verify this property? Indeed there is verification. Continue reading the article to know why.

Verification of Distributive Property

Let’s look at how it works for various operations. We’ll use the distributive law to apply the two basic operations of addition and subtraction separately.

  1. Distributive Property of Addition: We already know that the addition’s distributive property is given as k × (l + m) = kl + lm. Now it is time to verify this property by taking an example.

Example: Let us take an Expression, say, 10 x ( 3 + 6).

Solution: We will normally solve this expression by using the rules of BODMAS as standard.

In the first step, we will always solve the expressions inside the bracket. In this case (3 + 6 ) = 9. In the second step, we will multiply 10 by the number obtained, i.e. 9. This will give us the result as 10 x 9 = 90.

Now solve this using the distributive property of addition:

10 x ( 3 + 6 ) = (10 x 3) + (10 x 6)

= 30 + 60

= 90

As we can see both the methods yield the same result.

  1. Distributive Property of Subtraction: Now, let us verify the same for the distributive property of subtraction. We all already know that the distributive property of addition is given as k × (l – m) = kl – lm. Now it is time to verify this property by taking an example.

Example: Let us take an expression, say, 10 x (6 – 3).

Solution: We will normally solve this expression by using the rules of BODMAS as standard.

In the first step, we will always solve the expressions inside the bracket. In this case ( 6 – 3 ) = 3. In the second step, we will multiply 10 by the number obtained, i.e. 3. This will give us the result as 10 x 3 = 30.

Now solve this using the addition:

10 x ( 6 – 3 ) = (10 x 6) – (10 x 3)

= 60 – 30

= 30

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

Distributive Property: Definition, Formula, Examples

 

As we can see both the methods yield the same result again.

Hence, we have verified that the property of both addition and subtraction distribution is true.

Distributive Property of Division

The distributive property of division is the same as the distributive law of multiplication, with only the multiplication sign changing to division along with the operation. The larger term is divided into smaller factors (addend), and the divisor acts as the operand. You will understand this better with the example given below.

Example: Using the Distributive Property of Division, solve 36 ÷ 12.

Solution: 36 can be written as 24 + 12

Therefore we can write 36 ÷ 12 = (24 + 12) ÷ 12

Now, let us distribute 12 inside the bracket

⇒ (24 ÷ 12) + (12 ÷ 12)

⇒ 2 + 1

This gives us the answer as 3.

Distributive Property Examples

Example 1: Solve the Expression 2 (11 + 7) using the Distributive Property.

Solution:

Using the distributive property formula,

k × (l + m) = (k × l) + (k × m)

= (2 × 11) + (2 × 7)

= 22 + 14

= 36

Therefore, the value of 2 (11 + 7) = 36

Example 2: Prove that 5 x (3 – 12) has a Negative Result using the Distributive Property of Multiplication.

Solution:

Using the distributive property formula,

k × (l – m) = (k × l) – (k × m)

= (5 × 3) – (5 × 12)

= 15 – 60

= -45

Therefore, the value of 5 x (3 – 12) = – 45, which is a negative integer.

Now you must be 100 percent confident in what distributive property means and how to solve problems concerning this property. If you are not completely sure and have missed any of the concepts in the article, you can revisit this page again for theory and solutions. Moreover, start preparing for your upcoming exam now and outshine others by learning and practicing.

Frequently Asked Question

1. What is distributive property examples?

Distributive property is a rule that states that you can distribute the terms of an expression. It’s used when you have one term that’s being multiplied by another term but you want to distribute the term being multiplied by another number.

For example:

5(x+y) = 5x + 5y

In this case, x and y are multiplied by 5, which means we can distribute the 5 over them. So we would rewrite this as 50x + 50y.

Let’s look at another example:

(6x+2)(x-1) = 6×2 – 2x – 1

2. What property is distributive property?

It is a property that allows you to divide the whole by its parts. It is usually used in mathematics and algebra. For example, if you have the sum of two numbers and want to find the sum of their parts, you would use the distributive property.

3. What is the distributive property of 3?

The distributive property of 3 is a mathematical rule that allows you to distribute one number to each term in a sum.

For example, if you want to add 2+3+4, you can’t just say “add 6” because 2+3=5 and 4+3=7. You need to find a way to split up the 6 among those two terms.

The distributive property of 3 tells us how to do this: we’ll multiply each term by 3 before adding them together. So our answer is 9+12=21.

4. How do you do the distributive method?

The distributive method is a way to solve an equation by multiplying the parentheses on either side of the equality sign. The distributive law states that when multiplying or dividing by a sum or difference of terms, one must multiply or divide each term in the expression by each term in the sum or difference.

For example, if you have:

(a + 4)(a – 2) = 4a^2 – 8a + 8 – 8a

You would distribute the 4 from the first term to each term in the second term:

4a^2 – 8a + 8 – 8a = (4a^2) + (4(-2)) + (8) + (-8) = 16 – 0 + 0 = 16

5. Why do we use the distributive property?

The distributive property turns a multiplication problem into an addition problem. For example, if you have x * y, where x and y are positive numbers and x is greater than 1, then you can rewrite this as (x – 1) * y + x * y.

It is also useful when solving equations with exponents. For example, if you have 5(x+1) = 10(x), then you can rewrite this as 5x + 5 = 10x.

 

Distributive Property

Distributive Property

Distributive Property – The distributive property is also known as the distributive law of multiplication over addition and subtraction. The name itself signifies that the operation includes dividing or distributing something. The distributive law is applicable to addition and subtraction. Let us learn more about the distributive property of multiplication along with some distributive property examples, how to use the distrivutive property on this page.

What is the Distributive Property?

The distributive property states that an expression which is given in form of A (B + C) can be solved as A × (B + C) = AB + AC. This distributive law is also applicable to subtraction and is expressed as, A (B – C) = AB – AC. This means operand A is distributed between the other two operands.

Distributive Property Definition

According to the distributive property definition, the distributive property allows us to take a factor and distribute it to each member (term) of the group of things that have been added or subtracted. Instead of multiplying the factor by the group as a whole, we can distribute it to be multiplied by each member (term) of the group individually.

Distributive Property Formula

The distributive property formula of a given value is expressed as,

Let us discuss the distributive property of multiplication over addition and subtraction in detail with examples.

Distributive Property of Multiplication Over Addition

The distributive property of multiplication over addition is applied when we need to multiply a number by the sum of two numbers. For example, let us multiply 7 by the sum of 20 + 3. Mathematically we can represent this as 7(20 + 3).

Example: Solve the expression 7(20 + 3) using the distributive property of multiplication over addition.

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

Distributive Property

Solution: When we solve the expression 7(20 + 3) using the distributive property, we first multiply every addend by 7. This is known as distributing the number 7 amongst the two addends and then we can add the products. This means that the multiplication of 7(20) and 7(3) will be performed before the addition. This leads to 7(20) + 7(3) = 140 + 21 = 161.

Distributive Property of Multiplication Over Subtraction

The distributive property of multiplication over subtraction is similar to the distributive property of multiplication over addition except for the operation of addition and subtraction. Let us consider an example of the distributive property of multiplication over subtraction.

Example: Solve the expression 7(20 – 3) using the distributive property of multiplication over subtraction.

Solution: Using the distributive property of multiplication, we can solve the expression as follows: 7 × (20 – 3) = (7 × 20) – (7 × 3) = 140 – 21 = 119

Verification of Distributive Property

Let us try to justify how distributive property works for different operations. We will apply the distributive law individually on the two basic operations, i.e., addition and subtraction.

Distributive Property of Addition: The distributive property of multiplication over addition is expressed as A × (B + C) = AB + AC. Let us verify this property with the help of an example.

Example: Solve the expression 2(1 + 4) using the distributive law of multiplication over addition.

Solution: 2(1 + 4) = (2 × 1) + (2 × 4)

⇒ 2 + 8 = 10

Now, if we try to solve the expression using the law of BODMAS, we will solve it as follows. First, we will add the numbers given in brackets, and then we will multiply this sum with the number given outside the brackets. This means, 2(1 + 4) ⇒ 2 × 5 = 10. Therefore, both the methods result in the same answer.

Distributive Property of Subtraction: The distributive law of multiplication over subtraction is expressed as A × (B – C) = AB – AC. Let us verify this with the help of an example.

Example: Solve the expression 2(4 – 1) using the distributive law of multiplication over subtraction.

Solution: 2(4 – 1) = (2 × 4) – (2 × 1)

⇒ 8 – 2 = 6

Now, if we try to solve the expression using the order of operations, we will solve it as follows. First, we will subtract the numbers given in brackets, and then we will multiply this difference with the number given outside the brackets. This means 2(4 – 1) ⇒ 2 × 3 = 6. Since both the methods result in the same answer, this distributive law of subtraction is verified.

Distributive Property of Division

We can show the division of larger numbers using the distributive property by breaking the larger number into two or more smaller factors. Let us understand this with an example.

Example: Divide 24 ÷ 6 using the distributive property of division.
Solution: We can write 24 as 18 + 6
24 ÷ 6 = (18 + 6) ÷ 6
Now, let us distribute the division operation for each factor (18 and 6) in the bracket.
⇒ (18 ÷ 6) + (6 ÷ 6)
⇒ 3 + 1
Therefore, the answer is 4.

Cuemath is one of the world’s leading math learning platforms that offers LIVE 1-to-1 online math classes for grades K-12. Our mission is to transform the way children learn math, to help them excel in school and competitive exams. Our expert tutors conduct 2 or more live classes per week, at a pace that matches the child’s learning needs.

Property Management: Definition and Responsibilities

Property Management: Definition and Responsibilities

Property Management: Definition and Responsibilities – When a landowner owns a property but doesn’t have the time or experience to handle the business-related tasks involved, they have the option of hiring a property manager. Essentially, a property manager is the middle man between an owner and a renter that is responsible for various tasks including handling property upkeep. If you’re interested in this profession, you’ll need to know what property management entails and what responsibilities come with it.

In this article, we will define property management, a property management license and the various duties property managers face on a day-to-day basis.

What is property management?

Property management refers to the overseeing and management of various commercial and residential real estate properties. This includes taking care of all the daily operations for a property including collecting rent, handling maintenance, tenant complaints and more. The amount of responsibilities property managers have depends on their contract with the landlord.

For example, a landlord can hire a property management firm to help with one task such as collecting rent or they can stipulate that they want them to handle all business operations for their property in their entirety.

What is a property management license?

A property manager will typically need a property management license or real estate broker’s license to have a career in this profession. A property management license allows property managers to work in real estate and perform business-related duties in this profession. The specific licensing requirements will depend on the state in which you live and work. Not only will you likely require a license, but earning one will also give you credibility in your field.

A property management license can be obtained through state governments, local authorities or real estate boards. To obtain a property management license, you’ll need to be at least 18 years of age and have a high school diploma, however, more companies want property managers to have a bachelor’s degree in business, real estate or a related field.

What is a property management firm?

A property management firm is an office where property managers work. Property owners can hire a firm to maintain their properties when they don’t have the time, experience or capability to manage their properties themselves. There are several property management firms throughout the United States offering their real estate assistance.

Property management responsibilities

The number of responsibilities a property manager has is entirely dependent upon what’s stipulated in the contract between them and the landlord. Whereas some landlords may only want a property manager to collect rent, others may want a property manager to handle all aspects concerning their property. Here is a list of various property management responsibilities:

  1. Understanding landlord-tenant laws and regulations

  2. Handling maintenance requests and repairs

  3. Marketing properties

  4. Managing tenants

  5. Managing rent

  6. Supervising other employees

  7. Managing the budget

  8. Handling taxes

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

Property Management: Definition and Responsibilities

1. Understanding landlord-tenant laws and regulations

To be a good property manager, you’ll have to have a deep knowledge of both state and national landlord-tenant laws. This involves understanding how to screen a tenant, evict a tenant, end a lease and more. The better you understand these regulations, the more fair and better property manager you’ll be.

2. Handling maintenance requests and repairs

One of the main jobs a property manager can have involves making sure the property is kept up. To ensure a habitable and safe environment, property managers must respond to maintenance requests and repairs in a timely manner. This involves handling water leaks, extermination, trash removal and more.

To perform these tasks, property managers can do it themselves or hire a third party such as a plumber or electrician to handle the matter. The better a property manager keeps up with proper maintenance and repairs, the happier the tenants will be and the more attractive the property will be to future tenants.

3. Marketing properties

One of the main reasons landlords hire property managers is to help them market their property for new tenants. This involves taking photographs of the property and listing the property on various mediums such as housing websites. The greater the marketing job, the greater the chances are that a property will get a lot of interest. If a property manager gets a lot of interest on a property, they can afford to be more selective when it comes to choosing the right tenant.

4. Managing tenants

Property managers are often tasked with managing various tenants. This involves finding the right tenant for a landlord’s property and screening these tenants through various background and credit checks to ensure they’ve selected the right candidate(s).

Also, property managers will probably be entrusted to handle all tenant leases. They’re also tasked with handling tenant emergencies, move-outs and evictions. When dealing with a move-out, a property manager will have to assess the property for damage. Depending on the condition of the property, the property manager can determine how much of the tenant’s deposit will be returned to them.

After a tenant moves out, they’ll need to ensure the unit is clean, handle any necessary repairs and start marketing the unit once again. In regards to an eviction, if a tenant violates the lease, the property manager is responsible for starting the eviction process.

5. Managing rent

Managing the rent is one of the main responsibilities of a property manager. This involves setting a rental rate for a property. To do so, the property manager needs to assess the property, its location and the current market. Once a tenant moves into the property, they’ll be tasked with collecting rent on the property on a certain day and through their chosen medium. A property manager can also change the rental rate so long as they abide by state or city laws.

6. Supervising other employees

If a property has other employees, such as a security guard, property managers are responsible for supervising them. This involves salary discussion as well as possible termination if applicable.

7. Managing the budget

Property managers may also be in charge of managing the property budget and other important records. This involves taking into consideration the property budget, organizing all tenant leases, complaints, repair costs and more.

8. Handling taxes

Lastly, landlords may need assistance from the property manager when filing taxes. In some cases, the property manager may file the property taxes themselves.

Property Management: Definition, Roles, Types, and Duties

Property Management: Definition, Roles, Types, and Duties

What Is Property Management?

Property Management: Definition, Roles, Types, and Duties – Property management is the daily oversight of residential, commercial, or industrial real estate by a third-party contractor. Generally, property managers take responsibility for day-to-day repairs and ongoing maintenance, security, and upkeep of properties. They usually work for the owners of investment properties such as apartment and condominium complexes, private home communities, shopping centers, and industrial parks.

Their main roles are to manage routine tasks delegated to them by the owners and to preserve the value of the properties that they manage while generating income.

Understanding Property Management

Property developers generally want to move on to the next project as soon as each one is completed. Even if they continue to hold title to the property, they prefer to delegate the day-to-day operations to an outside company.

The responsibilities of a property manager generally involve the following:

  • Screening potential tenants
  • Drafting, signing, and renewing leases on behalf of property owners
  • Collecting rent
  • Maintenance of properties, including landscaping and snow removal
  • Arranging for necessary repairs to properties
  • Setting up and adhering to budgets for property maintenance
  • Understanding state and national landlord-tenant laws and regulations
  • Marketing properties
  • Supervising other employees
  • Handling taxes

The companies must comply with any state and local landlord-tenant laws and regulations.

Owners pay property managers a fee or a percentage of the rent generated by a property while it is under their management.

Types of Property Management

Just as property comes in many types, so do property managers. Some firms are specialized in providing management for a particular type of property, while others offer management services over a range of property types. A huge range of property types can be managed.

Residential Property Management

Residential property managers are typically hired for rental properties, and they manage the rental process. They can be hired to manage:

  • Single-family homes
  • Vacation rentals
  • Multifamily homes
  • Town houses
  • Condominiums
  • Apartments
  • Manufactured homes
  • Real estate-owned (REO) properties

Commercial Property Management

Commercial property owners have different needs from those who own residential property. Commercial property management can apply to:

  • Public accommodations like hotels
  • Retail properties like malls, restaurants, and gas stations
  • Office properties like real estate brokerages or doctors’ offices
  • Co-working spaces where professionals rent work space by the day or the hour

Industrial Property Management

Industrial properties that can benefit from management include:

  • Heavy manufacturing facilities such as automotive plants and steel mills
  • Light manufacturing factories such as food packaging
  • Warehouses
  • Distribution facilities

Special-Purpose Property Management

There are also numerous types of property that don’t fit neatly into the categories above, but that require management nonetheless. These include:

Read More : Mypass-a-grille.com

Property Management: Definition, Roles, Types, and Duties
  • Theaters
  • Sports arenas
  • Resorts
  • Senior care facilities
  • Schools and universities
  • Places of worship

Who Needs a Property Manager?

Several types of property owners can benefit from the services that property managers offer.

Landlords, for example, hire property management firms for a variety of reasons. Some may have multiple rental properties in their portfolios and lack the time or expertise to maintain the properties and deal with individual tenants. Some owners only have an interest in owning rental properties and earning profits from them. When this is the case, they hire professional property managers. Absentee landlords also make use of property management services. Some property management companies cater to individual landlords who rent out a single property such as a vacation home.

Property owners who participate in affordable housing programs tend to use property management services because their rental properties are subject to complex federal guidelines that require specialized expertise. Certain real estate brokers also operate as property managers. For example, a broker in a resort town may provide buyer and seller agent services as well as property management services. When this is the case, the real estate broker lists, shows, leases, and maintains vacation rentals for a number of property owners.

Special Property Management Considerations

Property management licensing requirements vary by state.1 Most states require property management companies to be licensed by the local real estate board, so property owners need to make sure that the firms they hire are properly licensed.

For instance, property managers in Florida are required to have real estate broker’s licenses to operate in the state.2 That’s because some of their responsibilities are deemed real estate activity. Holding a real estate broker’s license allows property managers to list rental properties in the multiple listing service (MLS) and to market the properties by standard real estate marketing methods. Holding a real estate broker’s license also allows the property management company to place a real estate board lockbox on a property’s door so that other licensed agents can show the property.

Florida also requires property managers to hold a broker’s license if they deal with rentals or leases and receive a commission for their services. However, property managers who manage the properties that they own in the state don’t need a license to do so.2

Managers in Massachusetts don’t require a broker’s license.3 That’s because certain duties considered to be real estate activities, such as listing and leasing properties, may be secondary to the main duties performed by the property manager.

Is a property manager worth it?

It depends. Managing property can be costly and take a lot of time. If the cost of a property manager is less than the opportunity cost of managing properties yourself, it’s probably a good investment. However, this is an equation that every investor will have to work through for themselves.

Who benefits from hiring a property manager?

Any property manager who doesn’t want to deal with the day-to-day management of property can potentially benefit from property management. This can include a residential property owner who doesn’t want the headaches of dealing with tenants, or commercial property owners who prefer others to source and manage tenants, leases, and maintenance.

Are property managers regulated?

Yes. Property management licensing requirements vary by state, but most states require property management companies to be licensed by the local real estate board. Property owners should make sure that the firms they hire are properly licensed.

The Bottom Line

Property management is the oversight of real estate by a third party, normally a professional property manager or property management company. Property managers can manage many different types of property: residential, commercial, industrial, and property for special purposes.

Property managers are generally responsible for the day-to-day operations of the real estate, from screening tenants to arranging for repairs and maintenance, and are paid via a fee or a percentage of the rent generated by the property. Every state has its own laws regulating the activities of property managers, so it’s important for property owners to check that potential property managers are properly licensed for their state.